Semi trucks are a vehicle we see almost every day. Many young kids are fascinated by the “big cars.“但一般人可能对半挂车了解不多. 例如,你可以称它们为拖拉机拖车、18轮拖车或卡车. 在这个博客中,我们将回答你所有关于半卡车的基本问题. 不管你是一个好奇的成年人还是一个好奇的孩子, we should have the answer to all your semi truck questions.

What is a semi truck?

A semi is a heavy-duty truck used for hauling large loads. Technically, they’re Class 7 or Class 8 vehicles. For comparison, 你看到的拉着露营拖车的大皮卡通常是2b类或3类车辆, sometimes Class 4. 

Why do they call it a semi truck?

It’s actually a bit of a mistake to call the truck a semi. The term originally referred to the trailers. 因为拖车没有前轮,从技术上讲,它们不是拖车. So they were called semi-trailers. 随着时间的推移,人们开始把卡车和拖车的组合称为半挂车,然后仅仅是卡车. 

There are tons of other common names for them as well. 惠勒是最受欢迎的一种,指的是一辆半挂车通常有18个轮子,用来拉拖车. Tractor-trailer is also another term you may hear a lot. 所有这些名字都是卡车和拖车的组合, 虽然通常只与卡车部分有关.

What kinds of semis are there?

你可以把卡车分为两类:卧铺卡车和普通车. 卧铺被用于长途运输,因为它在卡车的后面有一个卧室隔间. 卧铺可以是非常基本的,只有一张床和一些存储空间. Or they can get pretty fancy with two beds, a minifridge and microwave, TV and surround sound, and more! That may sound like a lot for a truck, but drivers can spend a week or more living in their truck, 只在上厕所和加满油箱的时候才出来.

Volvo VNR Day Cab Semi Truck
A Volvo Day Cab Truck

A day cab is just a big truck without the sleeping area. 这些卡车用于司机下班回家的较短距离. 在配送中心、港口、甚至机场,你经常能看到日间出租车. 凡是有大量货物运输的地方,你经常会看到日间出租车.

The Different Categories of Sleepers

You can have high-roof, mid-roof or flat roof trucks. 高车顶卡车有最高的车顶,给司机足够的空间站起来. High-roof trucks can be over 8 feet high inside. Mid-roof trucks are usually around 6 ft 9 inches inside. Flat-roof trucks are around 5 feet tall inside. 这些特征决定了司机住在卡车里的舒适度, 同时也会影响你的运货能力和目的地. 低矮的桥梁、隧道和其他道路特征意味着高大的车辆无法在某些道路上行驶.

Mack Anthem Sleeper Semi Truck
A Mack Anthem Sleeper Truck

How much does a semi weigh?

这个答案取决于卡车的制造和型号以及卡车的引擎. 白天的出租车(没有床的出租车)通常重15-16磅,000 pounds, around the same as two adult Asian elephants. 小卧铺(平屋顶的卧铺)重约1000磅. That’s like putting a polar bear on those elephants. Large sleepers can weigh over 18,000 pounds.

Does a semi truck use a tow hitch?

Nope! The trailer attaches to the truck with a large pin, called a king pin, 它通常有2-3英寸厚,从拖车底部伸出来. Imagine a water bottle-sized solid steel pipe. The king pin goes through the fifth wheel, 卡车后面的一块马蹄形的大金属, and clamps lock it in place. 拖钩的强度不足以拉动一整辆拖车. 第五个轮子也会使拖车前半部分的重量正好压在后轮上, making it easier to pull tall, heavy trailers.

semi truck 5th wheel trailer attachment

How much does a semi cost?

和重量一样,价格也会根据卡车的种类、发动机和其他特性而变化. New semi trucks generally start above $100,000, but with more features on larger trucks, the price can get close to $200,000. 二手卡车可以是一个很好的方式,以较低的价格得到一辆好的卡车. Those are generally priced lower around $40,000-70,000. But prices can go lower or higher depending on the mileage, condition, age, make and model, and features of the used truck. 有些老式或高里程卡车的售价可低至1万美元.

How tall are semi trucks?

Semi trucks are between 6.5 and 10 feet. 高度取决于卡车在卧铺上是否有一个更高的车顶,或者车顶帽. 车顶是一个弯曲的部分,在卡车的屋顶上,使它更符合空气动力学. Many day cabs have tall roof caps, 让空气平稳地从卡车前部穿过拖车顶部.

Semi Trucks with and without roof cap

How much weight can a semi truck pull?

Semi trucks pull anything over 26,000 pounds. 但许多卡车的最大重量实际上是道路重量限制. 在每个州,8万磅是所有车辆的上限. That’s the equivalent of 26 Prius cars! The weight also depends on the type of trailer. 

What kind of trailers can semis pull?

干货车拖车是你在路上看到的典型的矩形盒子. 它们被用来运输大量的消费品,如衣服、玩具、电子产品、书籍等等. 

Refrigerated vans, or reefers, look like dry vans, 但是他们在拖车前面安装了一个大冷却器. 它们被用来运输肉类、奶酪和冰淇淋等需要冷藏的食物. 

Volvo VNX Semi Truck with Flatbed Trailer
A Volvo VNX towing a flatbed drop deck trailer

Then, there are flatbed trailers 哪一个可以只是一个平坦的基础,或一个大台阶,称为下降甲板或台阶甲板. 这些是用来运输不需要防雨或防风的大东西的, or things that don’t fit in a van. 

Another type of trailer is a tanker. There are lots of kinds of tankers. 有人从后面来,有人从下面来,有人从上面来. They can carry all kinds of liquid like milk or oil, but they are also used to haul things like wheat and beans. 

The last common type of trailer is a car hauler. There are open and enclosed car haulers. 敞篷汽车搬运车更常见,用于将汽车从港口或工厂移动到配送点或经销商. 封闭的汽车搬运车保护汽车免受道路上的任何损坏, 所以它们更多地用于非常昂贵的汽车或定制汽车, like racecars.

What’s the best truck brand?

Well, that’s hard to say. As an authorized Mack and Volvo semi truck dealer, 我们认为他们是当今市场上表现最好的半决赛之一. 但“最佳”卡车往往是基于意见和准确的应用. 所以你得自己决定哪辆半挂车最好.

So, those are the basics of semi trucks. 所有好奇的孩子和好奇的头脑都想知道关于半挂车的一切. You’re always able to 浏览我们的大库存的新和二手半卡车出售. We always welcome questions, so find us on social media!